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  Mustafa Kemal ATATÜRK  
  the founder and first president of Turkish Republic  
National Assembly Expected to Name
Gen. Inonu, Former Premier, as President
  The New York Times


NOVEMBER 11, 1938

Wireless to
New York Times.
  Peaceful Transition to New Era Seen
--- Unity is Stressed Under Ideal of Founder

ISTANBUL, Turkey, Nov. 10-
Kemal Ataturk, President and creator of
modern Turkey, died today at Dolmabahçe
Palace at the age of 58. He had survived
thirteen wounds received in battle and a
number of assassination attempts, but
succumbed to cirrhosis of the liver.

It is expected that General Ismet Inonu,
former Premier and President Ataturk's
comrade-in-arms, will be chosen tomorrow
morning by the Republican People's party
to succeed the hero of the reborn nation.
The bulletin announcing the death of
Ataturk and signed by eight doctors read:

"The President's general condition, the
gravity of which was announced in a bulletin
published last night, grew steadily worse.
On Nov. 10, 1938, at 9:05 A.M., our great
chief, in a deep coma, breathed his last.

Three minutes after his death Salih Bozok,
former aide and one of the President's
closest friends, unsuccessfully attempted
suicide by shooting. He was seriously

  Inonu Is Likely Choice  
Its seems, therefore, that the choice will fall on
General Inonu. For many years he was a close
collaborator and lieutenant of President Ataturk
and until twelve months ago he had been Prime
Minister continuously for twelve years. No man in
Turkey possesses his experience, and that is
perhaps more important than his popularity,
which for long has been second only to Ataturk's.

  Change in Policy Unlikely  

ISTANBUL, Nov. 10 (AP). - There were
unconfirmed reports today that Kemal Ataturk
had left a political testament to guide his
successor in his own rigid doctrine of
westernization and nationalism.

No one expected Turkey's new leadership to
turn in the immediate future from the domestic
and foreign balance that Ataturk achieved for
his nation, strategically situated between the
East and the West.


A Military Hero, Formed surging Nation

He was called simply Mustafa when he was
born in Salonika in 1880, the son of a Turkish
custom's officer. His mathematic's teacher at
military preparatory school added Kemal,
meaning "rightness," to his name.
After attending the military preparatory
school at Salonika, the officers' school at
Monastir and the War Academy at
Istanbul, Kemal, then a head strong
youth of 22, entered the army in 1902
with the rank of lieutenant. Through
forbidden literature he became acquainted
with Western ideas of government, which
soon led to his hatred of Abdul Hamid,
whom he bitterly opposed. In a small
apartment in the Istanbul section of
Istanbul he founded the secret
Society of Liberty. As a result he was
arrested and after three months'
confinement in a cell at the ministry of
police, was exiled, being sent to
Damascus to join a cavalry regiment.
There he founded local branches of his
society, but, being too isolated, fled to
Alexandria and finally reached Salonika
by way of Piraeus in Greece.

  When his secret activities were again
discovered, he flew to Akaba and stayed
for a while in Syria. He obtained a transfer
to the Third Army's staff at Salonika, merged the
Society of Liberty into the Society of Progress and
entrenched his forces in Salonika, Monastir and
Uskup. The revolution of the Young Turks in 1908
failed, but the Sultan lost his absolute regime
in the counter-revolution of 1909. A quarrel
between Kemal and Enver Pasha, whose
rule succeeded that of Abdul Hamid,
followed, and Kemal withdrew from
politics in bitter disillusionment

During the following years he led the life of
the average Turkish army officer. He was exiled by
Enver to Tripoli, returned to Salonika, was
transferred to Albania, and again sent to
Salonika. Hated by Enver, he was military
attaché at Sofia, Bulgaria, when Turkey joined
Germany in 1914 in a last desperate gamble
for the life of the empire. Kemal, convinced
from the first that the empire was in no condition
to enter the war, received command of the
Nineteenth Division and was dispatched to the
Çanakkale. He soon commanded all the
Turco-German forces on the peninsula, and his
success in throwing back the British before
Anafarta was the most brilliant achievement
of his military career.



He was then transferred to Russian front after the
British had evacuated the Dardanelles. He was
appointed major general, in command of the
Sixteenth Army, but he threw up his command
in protest, and returned to Aleppo. That's why he
was exiled on the German and Austro-Hungarian
front in the following year.

Atatürk returned to Istanbul, which had fallen into
disorder. The members of his revolutionary
committee had fled, and Damad Ferid Pasha
was to succeed Talat and Enver. Turkey was
virtually surrounded by her enemies, the Allies
forming an iron ring around the remnants of the
old empire. Under the terms of the Mudros
armistice, the Turkish Navy was interned in
Istanbul and the army disarmed. With the Allies
in occupation of the capital, Kemal knew
that further attempts were useless. He fled to Anatolia.
When he ignored Ferid's demand to return, the
latter dismissed him from the army.

In the following struggle between Kemal
and Ferid, Kemal was the final victor. With the
Greek occupation of İzmir in 1919, which led
Kemal to tear up Mudros armistice, the star of
the Ghazi began to rise, and,after his strategic
victories, reached its climax with his diplomatic
victory at Lausanne and his election as first
President of the Turkish Republic

When he fought his way to leadership of
the Turks, the title of Pasha was added.
Most of his historic record was made as
Mustafa Kemal Pasha.

In 1934, when he had so modernized Turkey
that titles were abolished and he was able to
decree that all Turks must thereafter have family
names, he chose for himself the family name
of Atatürk, which is translated as "Chief Turk" or
"Father of All Turks." Thenceforth he was
known as Kemal Atatürk.


His death comes as a blow to a nation of
14,000,000 people Out of the remains of the
defeated and dismembered Ottoman Empire,
he formed in 1923 a republic, which he armed
and industrialized and made into a powerful
  Women Admitted to Parliament
In twelve years of reform women in Turkey were
transported from the harem and the veil to membership
in Parliament, to which seventeen women were admitted
in 1935. President Ataturk even gave women the right to
serve in the army, but said they would never be sent to the
front because they were too precious to the nation.
  Policy Based on Expediency  
The course of Turkey's international relations
was steered by Ataturk on an apparent chart of
. Russia was the first to help Turkey to
power. In the post-war settlement the Soviet opposed
in vain the partition of Turkey.

And when Kemal, not yet Atatürk, later undertook to drive
out the Allies Russia supplied arms, materials and funds
that contributed greatly to the final crushing of the Greeks
in 1922

Atatürk could not readily forget, however, that the
downfall of the Ottoman empire had resulted from
siding with Germany in the World War and that Turkey
had been among the Entente powers that Italy had
deserted to side with the Allies. Germany offered a
commercial treaty. And she offered a huge credits
under which she would undertake to construct docks
for Turkey along the Bosphorus, deliver a fleet of
coastwise steamers and build a variety of factories.
Atatürk announced a five-year plan of industrialization.
Turkey concluded a commercial treaty with
Germany, accepted a loan of 150,000,000 marks
and proceeded to become Germany's greatest foreign
 It became evident to the world
that Atatürk had brought Turkey to the receiving
end of several competing international axes and
to the profit position in the adjoining nationality
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  Scorned Doctors' Advice  

During a quarter of a century of war, intrigue
and the dictation of sweeping reforms, however,
Ataturk had habitually disregarded all doctors'
orders to take better care of his powerful physique.
Although he was stern and strict in his official life,
he was known to be convivial and carefree in his social
life. He frequently danced and drank all night, smoking
incessantly the while.

  A little more than mere teaching
0532 4254616
Although Atatürk rose to power because of his
military ability, a career for which his early
education destined him, his post-war activities
were those of a progressive and energetic
administrator. He was a revolutionary officer
who in his Salonika days had began to oppose
the committee of Young Turks; a man for
whom no measure of reform was adequate,
who found the policy of Talat and Enver
superficial, and the alliance with Germany
fatal; the man who made no capital out of the
military reputation he earned at Gallipoli,
who twice withdraw from public life, who
with threats warned the last Sultan to turn
over a new leaf, and who after the war,
contrived to defeat him and the people in
power in Istanbul, and who was
warned, recalled, deposed and sentenced to
death by the then Turkish Government.
  Profesyonellere İş İngilizcesi  
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  Having in his command 20,000 war-worn soldiers,
he entered upon the conflict with the great powers
of Europe, and then, for four whole years,
surrounded by foes without and within, waited
until he had overthrown the Sultan, abolished
the Caliphate, set free the essential part of Turkey
from the ruins of the old empire, saved it and
reestablished it as a republic. By these achievements
he proved himself a great military leader and statesman.
He lived, as the first citizen of his country, in a
villa situated among the hills outside the new
capital that he had founded. He had built it in that
Turkish style that dates from the period when
French tastes prevailed. Almost unguarded its
doors were left open in true Oriental fashion.
The historical dates of the Ghazi's career
after the World War are

On May 16, 1919, the Greeks landed at İzmir.
On June 21 the future dictator called the
assembly of a congress of patriots. The Sultan
dismissed him from the army service on July 8th.
Two weeks later the Ghazi presided at the
Congress of Erzurum, which resolved that
"with one accord the entire East will resist the
occupation and the interference of the foreigner."
On Sept. 4 he was elected chairman of a second
congress at Sivas, which resolved "to fight for
Turkish integrity." In October national elections
were forced by him, and these resulted in the
defeat of the Sultan's government. British troops,
in March, 1920, took possession of Istanbul,
and in April he was outlawed and condemned to
death by the Sultan.
Shortly afterward the Turkish National Assembly
met, elected the Ghazi President and adopted the
national pact, the Magna Charta of New Turkey.
In May the Sultan sent a "Caliph's army" toward
Ankara to destroy the nationalist forces. This
army was driven back into Istanbul by the Ghazi.
When the Greeks began their invasion of Asiatic
Turkey in June, 1920, he organized an army of defense.
On Aug. 10 the Treaty of Sevres partitioned the Ottoman
Empire and divided it among the European powers.
The Ghazi stopped the Greek army at Sakarya on
Sept. 13, 1921. At the battle of Dumlu Pınar, on
Aug. 26 1922, he issued an order to his troops,
"Soldiers, your goal is the Mediterranian!
On to it!" A few days later he drove the Greek
army into the sea. He advanced upon
Istanbul and the Çanakkale, and on
Oct. 11, 1922, authorized the signing of the
armistice treaty with the Allies at Mudovia,
which, in effect, was an other diplomatic
victory for Turkey.
  A little more than mere teaching
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  The new Turkey got rid of her Sultans in 1922
but she did not then dare abolish the Caliphate.
The abolition of the Caliphate was the first step of
importance in the life of the new republic. The
next was the reform of the laws. This was achieved
in the space of only a few weeks. The Swiss Civil
Code was almost literally translated, and the best
points of the Italian Penal Code were accepted.
Thus the Ghazi, by imposing his will upon the nation,
had altered within three months the entire judiciary.
 He ordered the first census ever to be held on Turkish
territory. Although this was not a reform in itself, it led to
reforms of vast importance which gave the country and the
world a definite idea of Turkey's importance in Near Eastern affairs. The President also made the Turkish language
obligatory as the official language, and ordered
that it be written in Roman instead of Arabic characters. Capitulations (foreign privileges) were abolished. The
Gregorian calendar was substituted for the Islamic, and
the feast of the Ramazan was fixed by astronomical
observation. In every direction Islamic precedence and prohibitions were broken and violated.
In its special aspects the revolution attempted
to model the customs of the State upon Western fashions.
The old order was changed. The traditional fez was
abandoned and the Turkish women gave up their veils.
Harems, survival of Byzantium, were forbidden,
monogamy became the law and men and women
received equal rights in the matter of divorce.
In 1923 Ankara, in the heart of Anatolia, became
officially the capital, as a result of a decree by the
President. He spent money freely to build it and
developed a modern city.
  A little more than mere teaching  
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