1. For each of the following general statements, change all of the pronouns and possessive adjectives to agree with the pronoun given in brackets. For example:
We must work to keep our environment healthy. (you)
You must work to keep your environment healthy.
You should always pay your income tax before the deadline. (one)
One should always pay one's income tax before the deadline.
One should not think only of oneself. (we)
We should not think only of ourselves.
1. We should work in order to realize our ambitions. (one)
2. When you are overworked, you should try to give yourself time to relax. (we)
3. One can never be sure whether one's intuitions are correct. (you)
4. If one organizes one's time properly, one can accomplish a great deal. (we)
5. If you own property, you should protect yourself with a good insurance policy. (one)
6. We should never be afraid to state our views. (you)
7. One should try to educate oneself as well as possible. (you)
8. We should try to teach our children a sense of responsibility. (one)
9. One can choose one's friends, but one cannot choose one's relatives. (we)
10. We become mature when we learn to trust our own judgement. (you)
11. You learn from your mistakes. (we)
12. You should always treat your friends well. (one)
2. For each of the following sentences, fill in the blank with this or these. Use this to refer to a single person or thing, and use these to refer to more than one person or thing. For example:
____ is her bicycle.
This is her bicycle.
Is ____ jacket too large?
Is this jacket too large?
_____ are our books.
These are our books.
_____ boots are warm.
These boots are warm.
1. Does __________ bus go downtown?
2. __________ are their suitcases.
3. __________ is his camera.
4. __________ trees are over one hundred years old.
5. Is __________ flower a daffodil?
6. __________ women will perform the skit.
7. __________ is the main entrance.
8. __________ lakes are very deep.
9. _________ is their school.
10. Are __________ radishes?
3. For each of the following sentences, fill in the blank with that or those. Use that to refer to a single person or thing, and use those to refer to more than one person or thing. For example:
____ is a hovercraft.
That is a hovercraft.
____ plane flies to Geneva.
That plane flies to Geneva.
_____ are peacocks.
Those are peacocks.
Are _____ children on vacation?
Are those children on vacation?
1. __________ is his pen.
2. __________ girls are Australian.
3. Has __________ chair been painted?
4. __________ watches are not expensive.
5. Does __________ train usually arrive on time?
6. Was __________ your friend?
7. __________ are my cousins.
8. ___________ is a swan.
9. Do __________ notebooks belong to you?
10. __________ are the places we will visit.
4. Rewrite the following sentences, changing the subjects and verbs
from the singular to the plural. For example:
Is this ready?
Are these ready?
This towel is fluffy.
These towels are fluffy.
That measures the temperature.
Those measure the temperature.
That pail is made of aluminum.
Those pails are made of aluminum.
1. This was finished last week.
2. Is that radiator working?
3. This picture is ours.
4. That has been completed.
5. This was designed by his aunt.
6. That does not need to be altered.
7. This table is made of wood.
8. Has that student seen the play?
9. This umbrella is new.
10. That river flows through the mountains.
5. Rewrite the following sentences, changing the subjects and verbs
from the plural to the singular. For example:
These were on sale.
This was on sale.
Are these books interesting?
Is this book interesting?
Those have been useful.
That has been useful.
Those plays were popular.
That play was popular.
1. These were necessary.
2. Those colors are beautiful.
3. Are these bells too loud?
4. Have those been polished?
5. These shirts are clean.
6. Those windows are on the west side of the house.
7. Are these correct?
8. These boys like to play soccer.
9. Those are sufficient.
10. Those curtains are crimson.
6. Paying attention to correct word order, arrange each of the following sets of words to form questions beginning with interrogative pronouns which are the objects of the verbs. If necessary, add the auxiliary do, does or did. For example:
you, prefer, which
Which do you prefer?
they, heard, what
What did they hear?
we, have found, what
What have we found?
I, should choose, which
Which should I choose?
1. they, have decided, what
2. you, want, which
3. I, should wear, what
4. she, said, what
5. he, likes, what
6. you, are reading, what
7. one, can do, what
8. they, bought, which
9. he, will be studying, what
10. I, saw, which
11. she, expects, what
12. they, had discovered, what
13. it, costs, what
14. you, would have done, what
15. he, will submit, which
16. she, received, what
7. For each of the following sentences, fill in the blank with the interrogative pronoun who or whom. Use who if the pronoun is the subject of the verb, and use whom if the pronoun is the object of the verb or the object of a preposition. For example:
___ is there?
Who is there?
___ has been notified?
Who has been notified?
____ are we expecting?
Whom are we expecting?
For ____ did you buy the flowers?
For whom did you buy the flowers?
1. _______ has read the book?
2. To _______ did he give the letter?
3. _______ is at the door?
4. _______ was awarded the prize?
5. _______ did he tell?
6. _______ answered the question correctly?
7. _______ does she like the best?
8. _______ would be the most suitable person for the job?
9. For _______ are they waiting?
10. _______ has been informed of the situation?
11. ________ can we ask?
12. _______ will be ready by eight o'clock?
13. _______ is watering the flowers?
14. _______ did you photograph?
15. _______ attended the meeting?
16. _______ was at the party?
17. _______ could be heard most easily?
18. ______ do you believe?
19. To _______ did you sell your car?
20. ______ will be waiting for us?
8. Paying attention to grammatically correct usage, for each of the following sentences, fill in the blank with who, whom or whose. In these sentences, use whose only as a possessive adjective, preceding a noun. For example:
___ is raking the leaves?
Who is raking the leaves?
____ did you call?
Whom did you call?
To ____ was he speaking?
To whom was he speaking?
_____ bicycle is leaning against the steps?
Whose bicycle is leaning against the steps?
1. By _______ was this written?
2. _______ gloves are lying on the table?
3. _______ lives here?
4. _______ did they help?
5. _______ child is this?
6. _______ was allowed to enter the competition?
7. _______ handwriting is the most legible?
8. With _______ was she speaking?
9. _______ sang the song?
10. _______ does she know?
11. _______ shoes are these?
12. _______ will make the cake?
13. _______ was present?
14. _______ curiosity would not be aroused by such a tale?
15. _______ will he teach?
9. For each of the following sentences, fill in the blank with either what or which. For example:
____ is happening?
What is happening?
_____ of my coats do you like the best?
Which of my coats do you like the best?
____ a surprise!
What a surprise!
1. _________ time does the train leave?
2. _________ of the three schools do you attend?
3. _________ is your name?
4. _________ a wonderful idea!
5. _________ planet is larger, Jupiter or Saturn?
6. _________ of your children is the cleverest?
7. _________ a mess!
8. __________ is your favorite dessert?
9. _________ would you prefer, tea or coffee?
10. _________ of these bicycles is yours?
10. Using the introductory phrase Please tell me, rewrite the following direct questions as indirect questions. Make sure that the subjects precede the verbs in the indirect questions. For example:
Who will choose the winners?
Please tell me who will choose the winners.
Whom did they choose?
Please tell me whom they chose.
For whom had you bought the present?
Please tell me for whom you had bought the present.
1. Who was selected?
2. Whom have you consulted?
3. To whom will she address the letter?
4. What did you accomplish?
5. Which boy opened the door?
6. To which cities has he traveled?
7. Which music did the orchestra perform?
8. For whose sake has he come?
9. What caused the delay?
10. Whose house did they visit?
11. Whose dog chased the cat?
12. Which books have you read?
11. Using the introductory phrase We will ask, and paying attention to the correct word order, rewrite the following direct questions as indirect questions. For example:
Who is that?
We will ask who that is.
What was that noise?
We will ask what that noise was.
Who is here?
We will ask who is here.
1. What is this?
2. Who was there?
3. Who was first?
4. Which was it?
5. Which is ready?
6. Who is she?
7. Whose book is this?
8. Whose work is ready?
9. Who was right?
10. Who was that singer?
11. Which students are here?
12. Who were they?
12. Paying attention to correct word order, use the phrases given in brackets to rewrite the following direct questions as indirect questions. For example:
Who baked the cake? (They will ask)
They will ask who baked the cake.
Whom did you tell? (We want to know)
We want to know whom you told.
To which student had she given the prize? (Did you find out)
Did you find out to which student she had given the prize?
Who was that? (Please tell me)
Please tell me who that was.
1. Who are you? (I want to know)
2. Who swept the floor? (We will ask)
3. For whom did you organize the party? (Tell me)
4. Whom had they met? (I asked)
5. At what time will you reach the station? (I need to know)
6. Which horse won the race? (They will ask)
7. Whose answer is correct? (I wonder)
8. Which hill did they climb? (We will ask)
9. What do you mean? (Please tell us)
10. What made that noise? (I wonder)
11. Which students are ready? (Will you tell me)
12. For what purpose has he called the meeting? (Ask him)
13. Whom can we trust? (I am not sure)
14. Whose work was chosen? (They will ask)
15. Which book has she ordered? (We will find out)
16. Who am I? (Do you know)
13. For each of the following sentences, underline the relative clause, and indicate whether the clause is defining or non-defining. For example:
The sky, which was perfectly clear, was covered with stars.
The sky, which was perfectly clear, was covered with stars. [Non-defining]
The shoes which are by the bed are mine.
The shoes which are by the bed are mine. [Defining]
1. The new appliances, which are quite expensive, will be on sale next week.
2. The picture which is hanging on the wall was painted by our friend.
3. The people who own the hotel have a great deal of business experience.
4. His uncle, who sings in the choir, is a friend of my father.
5. The building, which is in excellent repair, is over two hundred years old.
6. The door that is open leads to the study.
7. My friend, who is coming for a visit, is anxious to meet you.
8. Did you see the exhibition which was held here last week?
14. Paying attention to grammatically correct usage, for each of the following sentences, fill in the blank with who, whom or whose. For example:
The person ___ owns the bookstore is my friend.
The person who owns the bookstore is my friend.
The singer to ____ we gave the bouquet will be performing again tonight.
The singer to whom we gave the bouquet will be performing again tonight.
The contestants _____ names were announced should prepare to start.
The contestants whose names were announced should prepare to start.
1. My best friend, ________ I see every day, always has something new to tell me.
2. Most students ________ live in residence find it easy to make friends.
3. Our neighbors, to ________ we lent our lawnmower, are conscientious and considerate.
4. The volunteers, ________ enthusiasm was obvious, finished the work quickly.
5. The musicians ________ we heard yesterday have played together for many years.
6. Parents ________ children do well in school usually consider themselves fortunate.
7. Children ________ like music are often good at mathematics.
8. The student to ________ the prize was awarded had an impressive record.
9. My friend, ________ I visited last week, is taking a holiday soon.
10. The class treasurer, to ________ we gave the money, announced the
balance of the account.
11. The engineers ________ designed the building received an award.
12. The townspeople, ________ pride in their community is well-known,
raised enough money to build a new town hail.
15. Paying attention to grammatically correct usage, for each of the
following sentences, fill in the blank with who, whom or which. Use who or whom for antecedents which refer to persons, and use which for antecedents which refer to things. For example:
The woman ___ borrowed the books is a librarian.
The woman who borrowed the books is a librarian.
The key _____ opens this door is difficult to turn.
The key which opens this door is difficult to turn.
The children ____ we met are well-behaved.
The children whom we met are well-behaved.
The story _____ you heard is true.
The story which you heard is true.
The man to ____ you told the news is my brother.
The man to whom you told the news is my brother.
I have not yet received the letter to _____ you refer.
I have not yet received the letter to which you refer.
1. The window ________ is open is the kitchen window.
2. The girl _________ recited the poem is my niece.
3. The woman to ________ we were introduced was quite helpful.
4. The opportunity to _________ she owed her success came unexpectedly.
5. The man ________ they trusted was unreliable.
6. The book _________ you read is the best book by that author.
7. The Pacific Ocean, _________ may have been crossed by raft during the Stone Age, is the world's largest ocean.
8. His mother, _________ he visited frequently, ran her own business.
9. The boy, ________ was friendly and intelligent, soon found work.
10. Her husband, to _________ she told the story, was just as surprised as I was.
11. The pictures, _________ were taken in Algeria, were very striking.
12. The newspaper to ________ we subscribe is delivered regularly.
ANSWERS TO THE EXERCISES for Chapter 19|
Answers to Exercise 1:
1. One should work in order to realize one's ambitions.
2. When we are overworked we should try to give ourselves time to relax.
3. You can never be sure whether your intuitions are correct.
4. If we organize our time properly, we can accomplish a great deal.
5. If one owns property, one should protect oneself with a good insurance policy. 6. You should never be afraid to state your views.
7. You should try to educate yourself as well as possible.
8. One should try to teach one's children a sense of responsibility.
9. We can choose our friends, but we cannot choose our relatives.
10. You become mature when you learn to trust your own judgement.
11. We learn from our mistakes. 12. One should always treat one's friends well.
Answers to Exercise 2:
1. this 2. These 3. This 4. These 5. this 6. These 7. This
8. These 9. This 10. these
Answers to Exercise 3:
1. That 2. Those 3. that 4. Those 5. that 6. that 7. Those
8. That 9. those 10. Those
Answers to Exercise 4:
1. These were finished last week. 2. Are those radiators working?
3. These pictures are ours. 4. Those have been completed.
5. These were designed by his aunt. 6. Those do not need to be altered.
7. These tables are made of wood. 8. Have those students seen the play?
9. These umbrellas are new. 10. Those rivers flow through the mountains.
Answers to Exercise 5:
1. This was necessary. 2. That color is beautiful.
3. Is this bell too loud? 4. Has that been polished?
5. This shirt is clean. 6. That window is on the west side of the house.
7. Is this correct? 8. This boy likes to play soccer.
9. That is sufficient. 10. That curtain is crimson.
Answers to Exercise 6:
1. What have they decided? 2. Which do you want? 3. What should I wear?
4. What did she say? 5. What does he like? 6. What are you reading?
7. What can one do? 8. Which did they buy? 9. What will he be studying?
10. Which did I see? 11. What does she expect? 12. What had they discovered?
13. What does it cost? 14. What would you have done? 15. Which will he submit? 16. What did she receive?
Answers to Exercise 7:
1. Who 2. whom 3. Who 4. Who 5. Whom 6. Who 7. Whom 8. Who
9. whom 10. Who 11. Whom 12. Who 13. Who 14. Whom 15. Who 16. Who
17. Who 18. Whom 19. whom 20. Who
Answers to Exercise 8:
1. whom 2. Whose 3. Who 4. Whom 5. Whose 6. Who 7. Whose
8. whom 9. Who 10. Whom 11. Whose 12. Who 13. Who 14. Whose 15. Whom
Answers to Exercise 9:
1. What 2. Which 3. What 4. What 5. Which 6. Which 7. What
8. What 9. Which 10. Which
Answers to Exercise 10:
1. Please tell me who was selected. 2. Please tell me whom you have
consulted. 3. Please tell me to whom she will address the letter.
4. Please tell me what you accomplished. 5. Please tell me which boy
opened the door. 6. Please tell me to which cities he has traveled.
7. Please tell me which music the orchestra performed. 8. Please tell
me for whose sake he has come. 9. Please tell me what caused the delay.
10. Please tell me whose house they visited. 11. Please tell me whose
dog chased the cat. 12. Please tell me which books you have read.
Answers to Exercise 11:
1. We will ask what this is. 2. We will ask who was there. 3. We
will ask who was first. 4. We will ask which it was. 5. We will ask
which is ready. 6. We will ask who she is. 7. We will ask whose book
this is. 8. We will ask whose work is ready. 9. We will ask who was
right. 10. We will ask who that singer was. 11. We will ask which
students are here. 12. We will ask who they were.
Answers to Exercise 12:
1. I want to know who you are. 2. We will ask who swept the floor.
3. Tell me for whom you organized the party. 4. I asked whom they had met.
5. I need to know at what time you will reach the station. 6. They will ask which horse won the race. 7. I wonder whose answer is correct.
8. We will ask which hill they climbed. 9. Please tell us what you mean.
10. I wonder what made that noise. 11. Will you tell me which students are ready? 12. Ask him for what purpose he has called the meeting.
13. I am not sure whom we can trust. 14. They will ask whose work was
chosen. 15. We will find out which book she has ordered. 16. Do you
know who I am?
Answers to Exercise 13:
1. The new appliances, which are quite expensive, will be on sale next week. [Non-defining]
2. The picture which is hanging on the wall was painted by our friend. [Defining]
3. The people who own the hotel have a great deal of business experience. [Defining]
4. His uncle, who sings in the choir, is a friend of my father. [Non-defining]
5. The building, which is in excellent repair, is over two hundred years old. [Non-defining]
6. The door that is open leads to the study. [Defining]
7. My friend, who is coming for a visit, is anxious to meet you. [Non-defining]
8. Did you see the exhibition which was held here last week? [Defining]
Answers to Exercise 14:
1. whom 2. who 3. whom 4. whose 5. whom 6. whose 7. who 8. whom
9. whom 10. whom 11. who 12. whose
Answers to Exercise 15:
1. which 2. who 3. whom 4. which 5. whom 6. which 7. which
8. whom 9. who 10. whom 11. which 12. which